Что это - ХОБЛ?

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Что это – ХОБЛ?

Всемирный день борьбы против хронической обструктивной болезни легких (World Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Day, World COPD Day) отмечается ежегодно в среду второй или третьей недели ноября по инициативе Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ).

Хроническая обструктивная болезнь легких (ХОБЛ) – хроническое воспалительное заболевание легких с преимущественным поражением легочной ткани, формированием эмфиземы, нарушением бронхиальной проходимости с развитием необратимой закупорки бронхов, вызванной воспалительной реакцией. Болезнь проявляется кашлем, отделением мокроты и нарастающей одышкой, имеет неуклонно прогрессирующий характер с исходом в хроническую дыхательную недостаточность и легочное сердце.

По оценкам ВОЗ, хронической обструктивной болезнью легких в мире страдают более 210 миллионов человек. В России насчитывается около 1 млн больных ХОБЛ, но в действительности это количество превышает 10 млн человек.

Основными факторами риска развития ХОБЛ являются: курение (как активное, так и пассивное); воздействие профессиональных вредностей (пыль, химические поллютанты, пары кислот и щелочей); загрязнение атмосферного воздуха; болезни органов дыхания в раннем детском возрасте и наследственная предрасположенность. Медицинские исследования подтверждают, что активное курение сигарет является наиболее важным фактором риска развития ХОБЛ.

Прогноз в отношении выздоровления неблагоприятен. Заболевание характеризуется прогрессирующим течением, приводящим к инвалидизации.

Профилактические мероприятия в отношении ХОБЛ: здоровый образ жизни, который включает в себя достаточную физическую активность, достаточное пребывание на свежем воздухе, сбалансированное питание, соблюдение требований охраны труда при наличии профвредностей, профилактика бронхолегочных инфекций и их обострений. Особое место занимает отказ от курения.

Автор: Околов А.И.,

районный терапевт

ГБУЗ СК «Левокумская РБ»



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